Metallographic laboratory

The metallographic laboratory was established under the former Jesenice Steelworks in 1961. Metallography is the science which deals with the examination of metals and alloys by means of various techniques, of which optical and electron microscopy are the most important.
For these examinations samples should be properly prepared by grinding, polishing and etching. Several factors have an influence on microstructure: chemical composition, the process of steel processing, heat treatment, mechanical working, welding, and the effects of the environment and other working conditions, among others.
Metallographic examinations are of key importance for increasing our knowledge of metallic materials.

The work in our metallographic laboratory is oriented mostly toward steel research and examinations, but we also perform examinations on other metallic materials.

1. Macroscopic metallographic examinations:

  • Determination of segregations 
  • Surface examinations 
  • Examinations of homogeneity

2. Microscopic metallographic examinations:

  • Estimation of non-metallic inclusion  
    (ASTM E 45, DIN 50602, ISO 4967)
  • Estimation of grain size
    (ASTM E 112) 
  • Estimation of carbide distribution
    (SEP 1520)
  • Estimation of the thickness of various layers (nitriding, case hardening, galvanising)
  • Estimation of decarburization depth, 
  • Estimation of the proportion of microstructural constituents

3. Hardness measurements according to:

  • Brinell (EN 10003)
  • Vickers (SIST EN ISO 6507-1)
  • Rockwell (EN 10009)

4. Microhardness measurements

5. Determination of the condition of heat treatment of the sample on the basis of microstructure

6. Determination of defects, their cause or source

7. Determination of fracture type, their mode and origin

8. Microstructural analysis of material in production on the basis of replication techniques

9. Determination of corrosion type and its origin

10. Examinations by an electron microscope and its characterization by EDS analysis